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In a randomized double-blind study, 134 patients were given 500 mg metronidazole as an intravenous infusion immediately before operation for abdominal total hysterectomy and again 8 hours later and 124 patients received placebo.There was more wound infection, postoperative hospitalization was longer and the sedimentation rate on the sixth postoperative day was significantly higher in the placebo group. There was no difference in postoperative temperature. Postoperative wound infections occurred in 12% in the placebo group and 6% in the metronidazole group. Eight percent in the total material had urinary tract infections, the diagnosis was based on urine cultures.Prophylaxis with intravenous infusion of metronidazole is recommended in total hysterectomies.