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Session 1 of the 2007 Workshop of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology focused on chronic myelogenous leukemia, BCR-ABL1+ (CML). CML is a myeloproliferative neoplasm arising at the level of a pluripotent stem cell and consistently associated with the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. CML most commonly manifests in a chronic phase of the disease with neutrophilic leukocytosis, and the demonstration of the Philadelphia chromosome is the ultimate confirmation of the diagnosis. However, in select cases, the initial diagnosis remains challenging, and a number of issues pertaining to the manifestations and disease evolution remain unresolved. These issues have been illustrated by the cases submitted to our workshop and include unusual manifestations of CML, including manifestation in the accelerated and/or blast phase, and patterns of disease progression and therapy resistance in the era of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.