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Studies were performed in ten pentobarbital-anesthetized, open chest dogs to evaluate regional circulatory effects of isovolemic hemodilution alone, and in combination with adenosine-induced controlled hypotension. Regional blood flow measured with 15-μm radioactive microspheres was used to calculate regional oxygen supply. Hemodilution with 5% dextran (40,000 molecular weight) reduced arterial hematocrit and oxygen contentby approximately one-half and caused heterogeneous changes in regional blood flows; flow decreased in the spleen, was unchanged in the renal cortex, liver, skeletal muscle and skin, and increased in the duodenum, pancreas, brain and myocardium; however, only inthe brain and myocardium were increases in flow sufficient to preserve oxygen supply. Intravenous infusion of adenosine reduced aortic pressure by 50% and reduced flow in most tissues (renal cortex, pancreas, liver, spleen, skin, and brain), with the result that oxygen deficits were produced or accentuated in these organs. The magnitude of flow reductions in the renal cortex (−73%) and cerebral cortex (−37%) were noteworthy. In themyocardium, direct coronary vasodilation by adenosine caused parallel increases in blood flow and oxygen supply to levels exceeding prevailing metabolic requirements. It is concluded that 1) during isovolemic hemodilution alone, oxygen supply to the brain and myocardium is maintained at the expense of oxygen supply to less critical organs and, 2) during combined isovolemic hemodilution and adenosine−induced hypotension, oxygen is oversupplied to the myocardium but undersupplied to the brain and kidney. These latter effects suggest the need for extensive clinical monitoring of patients in whom combined isovolemic hemodilution and adenosine−induced hypotension is utilized.