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Myocardial and systemic effects of isovolemic hemodilution alone and combined with controlled hypotension induced with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were studied in halothane-anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Regional blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres and used to compute regional oxygen (O2) supply. Values for regional blood flow in myocardium were used to compute myocardial O2 (MVO2) and lactate uptake (MVLAC) using the Fick equation. Hemodilution to hematocrit 50% of baseline increased aortic blood flow and decreased systemic vascular resistance, although other systemic hemodynamic values were not changed. Twofold increases in myocardial blood flow were accompanied by no change in MVO2, MVLAC, or coronary sinus PO2. Hemodilution increased regional blood flow sufficiently in the pancreas, liver, duodenum, skeletal muscle, skin, and brain to preserve O2 supply whereas unchanged blood flow in the spleen and kidney reduced O2 supply. Under hemodilution, 15 min of intravenous SNP sufficient to reduce mean arterial pressure by 50% caused parallel reductions in aortic blood flow, dP/dt max, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure; systemic vascular resistance was unaffected. Myocardial blood flow and MVO2 decreased proportionally, whereas MVLAC and coronary sinus PO2 did not change. Regional blood flow and O2 supply decreased in the kidney, spleen, liver, and skin. Extending SNP infusion to 60 min increased myocardial blood flow and MVO2, but other hemodynamic values were unchanged. Comparing previous results with adenosine-induced hypotension inferred that coronary vasodilator reserve was greatly reduced at this time. In conclusion, although myocardial O2 supply versus demand balance was well maintained during SNP-induced hypotension under hemodiluted conditions, diminished coronary vasodilator reserve suggests increased vulnerability to ischemia if stresses of augmented cardiac work demand or impaired arterial oxygenation were superimposed. The decrease in O2 supply in the kidney during combined hemodilution and SNP-induced hypotension also warrants concern. These latter findings suggest the need for extensive clinical monitoring when SNP is used for controlled hypotension under hemodiluted conditions.