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This study was designed to evaluate intrathecal (IT) sufentanil for labor analgesia with respect to sensory changes, side effects, and fetal heart rate (FHR) changes. In Phase I of the study, data regarding duration of analgesia and hemodynamic changes were obtained retrospectively from the labor and anesthetic records of 90 patients who had received IT sufentanil, 10 μg in 1 mL of saline, during active labor. In Phase II, an additional 18 parturients who received similar treatment were studied prospectively to document sensory, motor, and hemodynamic changes, as well as the incidence of side effects. In Phase I, analgesia occurred rapidly and lasted 124 ± 68 min (SD); 19% of patients required no further analgesia before delivery. In Phase II, median time to onset of analgesia was 3 min (range 1–6 min) and mean duration of analgesia was 96 ± 36 min. Decreased sensation to pinprick and cold occurred within 6 min extending from T4 to L4 (upper and lower median levels) in the majority of patients. All subjects requested additional analgesia within approximately 30 min of recession of sensory changes. Motor strength remained normal throughout. Hypotension (systolic blood pressure [BP] ≤ 90 mm Hg or > 20% decrease in systolic BP) occurred in 14% and 11% of patients in Phase I and II, respectively. Perineal itching preceded analgesia in 95% of patients and all subjects experienced mild sedation. FHR changes occurred in 15% of cases but were not associated with adverse neonatal outcome. The segmental sensory “block” and hypotension associated with IT sufentanil suggest that analgesia may result from a local anesthetic effect in addition to opioid activity at spinal cord μ receptors. Thus, as with regional techniques employing local anesthetics, caution is advised when hemodynamic instability might pose significant maternal or fetal risk.