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We evaluated the efficacy of ketorolac in suppressing postoperative bladder spasms after ureteroneocystostomy (ureteral reimplantation). Twenty-four pediatric patients undergoing intravesical ureteroneocystostomy were enrolled prospectively to receive either ketorolac or placebo via double-blinded randomization. Twelve patients in each group shared similar preoperative characteristics. All were maintained on an epidural infusion of bupivacaine (0.1%) with fentanyl (2 μg/mL) throughout the study. Patients were given either ketorolac (0.5 mg · kg-1 · dose-1) or placebo (equivalent volume saline) IV after surgery and every 6 h thereafter for 48 h. Parents were instructed to record bladder spasm episodes prospectively by using a standardized time-flow diary. Three patients (25%) in the ketorolac group experienced bladder spasms, compared with 10 patients (83%) in the placebo group (two-sided P < 0.05). The median severity score for the ketorolac group was 1.2 (mild = 1.0, severe = 3.0), compared with 2.6 for the placebo group (P = 0.003). We conclude that IV ketorolac reduces the frequency and severity of postoperative bladder spasms after intravesical ureteroneocystostomy.We studied the efficacy of ketorolac, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, in the treatment of bladder spasm after ureteroneocystostomy (antireflux operation). Patients were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive either ketorolac or placebo after the surgery. We demonstrate that ketorolac reduces the frequency and severity of postoperative bladder spasm.