The Effect of a Model-Based Predictive Display on the Control of End-Tidal Sevoflurane Concentrations During Low-Flow Anesthesia

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We have shown that a multicompartment model accurately predicts end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane (sevo) and isoflurane concentrations. The model has been adapted to use real-time fresh gas flow and vaporizer settings to display a 10-min prediction of ET sevo concentrations. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the predictive display on the speed and accuracy of changes in ET sevo by the anesthesiologist. Fifteen patients were studied in whom sevo-based anesthesia was expected to last more than 2 h. Four step changes of target ET concentration (+0.5, +1.0, −1.0, and −0.5 vol%) were made either unaided or with the prediction display. Fresh gas flow was 1 L/min. Response time, maximum overshoot, and stability in the 5 min after the target was achieved were compared by using two-tailed paired Student’s t-tests. Changes were made on average 1.5–2.3 times faster with the predictive display than without it. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for the +0.5, +1.0, and −0.5 vol% step changes but not for the −1.0 vol% change. There were no differences in the degree of overshoot or stability. These differences are comparable to those seen with an automatic feedback control system. This system may simplify the administration of volatile anesthesia and the use of low-flow anesthesia.

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