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For patients with aortic valve (AV) disease, the classic treatment has been AV replacement and this remains true for aortic stenosis. In contrast, repair of isolated aortic insufficiency (AI), with or without aortic root pathology, is emerging as a feasible and attractive option to replacement. The AV is one of the elements of the aortic root. As such, AI can develop if one or more elements of the aortic root are diseased. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation permits analysis of the mechanisms of aortic regurgitation as well as differentiation between repairable and unrepairable AV pathology. Immediate postrepair transesophageal echocardiography provides important information about the quality and durability of repair and identifies variables associated with recurrent AI.