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Many data are available regarding cardiac risk in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac surgery, but few data are available regarding risk for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and asymmetric septal hypertrophy.Seventy-seven patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy were identified in whom an echocardiogram had been performed within 24 months of noncardiac surgery. Patients' charts were reviewed for data regarding surgical operations, including length of surgery, type of anesthesia, and intravascular monitoring used. Data regarding adverse perioperative cardiac events also were gathered.Forty percent (n = 31) of patients had one or more adverse perioperative cardiac events, including one patient who had a myocardial infarction and ventricular tachycardia that required emergent cardioversion. There were no perioperative deaths. All 31 patients had minor outcomes. Of the 77 patients, perioperative congestive heart failure developed in 12 (16%). Factors associated with adverse cardiac events were increasing length of surgical time (P < 0.01) major surgery (P < 0.05), and intensity of monitoring (P < 0.05). Age, gender, resting outflow tract gradient, systolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral leaflet, prior myocardial infarction, severity of mitral regurgitation, type of anesthetic, septal thickness, and the interval between echocardiogram and surgery were not associated with the occurrence of adverse cardiac events.Patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy undergoing noncardiac surgery have a high incidence of adverse cardiac events, frequently manifested as congestive heart failure. However, irreversible cardiac morbidity and mortality was extremely low. Important independent risk factors for adverse outcome in all patients include major surgery and increasing duration of surgery.