Inhibition of Lysophosphatidate Signaling by Lidocaine and Bupivacaine

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Background:Lidocaine and bupivacaine impair wound healing, but the mechanism of this side effect has not been determined. The phospholipid messenger lysophosphatidate is released from activated platelets and induces fibroblast and smooth muscle proliferation. Because it may play a role in wound healing, the authors studied the effects of local anesthetics on lysophosphatidate signaling in Xenopus oocytes.Methods:Defolliculated Xenopus oocytes expressing endogenous G protein-coupled lysophosphatidate receptors were voltage clamped and studied in the presence or absence of lidocaine or bupivacaine. Lysophosphatidate-induced Ca2+ -activated Cl sup - currents (ICl(Ca)) were measured. To determine the site of action of the local anesthetics on the signaling pathway, the authors studied 1) the effects of local anesthetics on signaling induced by intracellular injection of the second messenger inositoltrisphosphate, and 2) the effects of local anesthetics on functioning of recombinantly expressed angiotensin II receptor signaling through the same pathways as the lysophosphatidate receptor.Results:Lysophosphatidate signaling was inhibited in the presence of local anesthetics. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 s) for lidocaine and bupivacaine were 29.6 mM and 4.7 mM, respectively. Neither responses induced by inositoltrisphosphate injection nor angiotensin signaling were influenced by local anesthetics.Conclusions:Lysophosphatidate signaling is inhibited by the extracellular application of lidocaine or bupivacaine. In contrast, inositoltrisphosphate or angiotensin signaling was not affected by local anesthetics. Therefore local anesthetics have a specific, extracellular effect on lysophosphatidate receptor functioning. As the local anesthetic concentrations used were similar to those observed after injection around surgical wounds, LP inhibition may play a role in the observed detrimental effects of local anesthetics on wound healing.

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