Comparison of Volatile Anesthetic Actions on Intracellular Calcium Stores of Vascular Smooth Muscle: Investigation in Isolated Systemic Resistance Arteries

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BackgroundVolatile anesthetic actions on intracellular Ca2+ stores (i.e., sarcoplasmic reticulum [SR]) of vascular smooth muscle have not been fully elucidated.MethodsUsing isometric force recording method and fura-2 fluorometry, the actions of four volatile anesthetics on SR were studied in isolated endothelium-denuded rat mesenteric arteries.ResultsHalothane (≥ 3%) and enflurane (≥ 3%), but not isoflurane and sevoflurane, increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in Ca2+-free solution. These Ca2+-releasing actions were eliminated by procaine. When each anesthetic was applied during Ca2+ loading, halothane (≥ 3%) and enflurane (5%), but not isoflurane and sevoflurane, decreased the amount of Ca2+ in the SR. However, if halothane or enflurane was applied with procaine during Ca2+ loading, both anesthetics increased the amount of Ca2+ in the SR. The caffeine-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was enhanced in the presence of halothane (≥ 1%), enflurane (≥ 1%), and isoflurane (≥ 3%) but was attenuated in the presence of sevoflurane (≥ 3%). The norepinephrine-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was enhanced only in the presence of sevoflurane (≥ 3%). Not all of these anesthetic effects on the [Ca2+]i were parallel with the simultaneously observed anesthetic effects on the force.ConclusionsIn systemic resistance arteries, the halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane differentially influence the SR functions. Both halothane and enflurane cause Ca2+ release from the caffeine-sensitive SR. In addition, both anesthetics appear to have a stimulating action on Ca2+ uptake in addition to the Ca2+-releasing action. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane all enhance, while sevoflurane attenuates, the Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release mechanism. However, only sevoflurane stimulates the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate–induced Ca2+ release mechanism. Isoflurane and sevoflurane do not stimulate Ca2+ release or influence Ca2+ uptake.

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