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To describe the long-term outcomes of cases of neovascular glaucoma drained by Molteno implants.A prospective study of 145 eyes (130 patients) followed up for a mean of 3.3 years (range, 0.02 year [5 days] to 18.1 years) in the province of Otago, New Zealand, from 1979 to 2002.Insertion of a Molteno implant controlled the intraocular pressure at 21 mm Hg or less with a probability (95% confidence interval) of 0.72 (0.64–0.80), 0.60 (0.51–0.69), and 0.40 (0.29–0.50) at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. Failure to control intraocular pressure at 1, 2, and 5 years was significantly correlated with persistent iris neovascularization (P<.001, P<.001, and P = .01, respectively). Visual acuity at final follow-up in nonenucleated eyes was maintained or improved in 56 eyes (39%) and deteriorated to light perception or better in 25 (17%) or no light perception in 47 (32%). Seventeen eyes (12%) were enucleated.The insertion of Molteno implants for neovascular glaucoma maintained or improved vision in 39% of eyes, whereas 12% were eventually enucleated (all of which initially had visual acuity <20/1200). The outcome depended mainly on progression of the underlying vascular disease.