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Invasive and mucosal candidiasis are associated with major morbidity in patients with inappropriate host defence mechanisms. This review focuses on recent studies elucidating the immune response against candidiasis and possible immunotherapeutic approaches.The last year has seen substantial advances in understanding antifungal immunity. The role of pattern recognition receptors and the Th1 and Th17 immune pathways has been further elucidated. The first genome-wide studies have identified new risk factors for candidaemia. Trials of adjuvant immunotherapy for fungal infections have provided directions for the future.Understanding the fungal pathogenesis and the induction of protective antifungal adaptive immunity has advanced the development of immunotherapeutic strategies and vaccines against invasive and mucosal candidiasis.