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Successful transplant outcomes require optimal patient selection and timing. This review will update clinicians with current status and challenges in liver transplantation. Currently, the major limitation facing liver transplant centers is the shortage of organs. The limited availability of organs has led to long waiting periods for liver transplantation and consequently many patients become seriously ill or die while on the waiting list.This has major implications in the selection of patients, as well as the timing of transplant, for optimal use of these scarce organs. Indications and contraindications have changed slightly over the years and will be reviewed in this article.Timing for transplantation has changed more dramatically in the recent years because major changes to organ allocation systems have been undertaken to provide clinicians with a better way to prioritize patients for liver transplant.