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This study was conducted in order to help determine the key factors that predict adherence to antiretroviral medications. A total of 115 HIV/AIDS patients who were having trouble adhering to their antiretroviral regimens completed face-to-face interviews in which adherence levels, medication side effects, mental health, social support, patient–provider relationship characteristics, substance use and health anxiety were assessed. Three measures of adherence were used: adherence over the past three days, adherence over the past week, and adherence over the past month. Logistic regression analyses indicated strongest prediction of three-day adherence, with mental health, social support, patient–provider relationship characteristics and side effects contributing to prediction. Past week adherence was associated with age and social support measures, and showed a marginal association with side effects. Past month adherence was less strongly predicted, with social support and alcohol use contributing to prediction. Thus, a variety of factors were found to determine adherence, and implications of the findings for adherence models and interventions are discussed.