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Diverticular bleeding is a common cause of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Several factors, including use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antithrombotic agents and arteriosclerosis, could be risk factors. The aim of this study is to identify these risk factors.Between January 2000 and December 2008, 51 patients among 178 acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhages who visited Saga Medical School were diagnosed as colonic diverticular hemorrhage, established by emergency endoscopy and diagnostic criteria. Gender and age matched control cases were selected from patients of other diseases hospitalized during the same period. We evaluated by using logistic regression analysis the influences of comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and osteoporosis, medications including NSAIDs and antithrombotic agents, and habits of smoking, alcohol, and chronic constipation.Fifty one patients out of 178 acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (28.7%) were diagnosed as diverticular hemorrhage, which was the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Sex ratio of men versus women for colonic diverticular hemorrhage was 35:16. NSAIDs were a significant risk factor for colonic diverticular hemorrhage in elder patients (odds ratio [OR] = 7.492, 95% CI: 1.516–37.024, P = 0.0135). Hypertension and hyperlipidemia had significant association with diverticular hemorrhage among patients younger than 65 years old. This study also indicated that use of NSAIDs was a risk factor for re-bleeding (OR = 5.4, 95% CI: 1.01–28.78, P = 0.048).This case-control study revealed that the use of NSAIDs was a significant risk factor for colonic diverticular hemorrhage in elder patients. In addition, use of NSAIDs is a risk factor for re-bleeding from colonic diverticula.