Empowering Sustained Patient Safety: The Benefits of Combining Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches

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Implementation of TeamSTEPPS for improving patient safety is examined via descriptive qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 21 informants at 12 hospitals. Implementation approaches fit 3 strategies: top-down, bottom-up, and combination. The top-down approach failed to develop enough commitment to spread implementation. The bottom-up approach was unable to marshal the resources necessary to spread implementation. Combining top-down and bottom-up processes best facilitated the implementation and spread of the TeamSTEPPS safety initiative.

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