Some HIV protease inhibitors alter lamin A/C maturation and stability, SREBP-1 nuclear localization and adipocyte differentiation

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Objectives:To study whether HIV protease inhibitors could induce nuclear lamina alterations in adipocytes as observed in a genetic form of lipodystrophy due to lamin A/C mutation.Design:We have previously observed that indinavir (IDV) impairs adipocyte differentiation and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) nuclear localization in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. We compared here the effects of IDV with that produced by two other PIs, nelfinavir (NFV) and amprenavir (APV) on adipose conversion, cellular localization of SREBP-1, nuclear morphology, and maturation and stability of the lamina network.Results:IDV and NFV, but not APV, altered adipose cell differentiation, as shown by lipid staining and protein expression of SREBP-1, CAAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α and fatty acid synthase (FAS). In IDV-treated cells, 50–60 % of the nuclei could not accumulate SREBP-1. Twenty percent of these SREBP-negative nuclei were grossly dysmorphic, with blebs and prominent herniations, and showed an altered distribution of lamin A/C and lamin B. In IDV-treated cells, nuclear fragilization was shown by the abnormal extractibility of lamina proteins and SREBP-1, and the accumulation of prelamin A. NFV similarly altered lamin A/C maturation whereas APV was almost ineffective.Conclusions:We show in an adipose cell line that IDV and NFV induced alterations at the nuclear level by promoting defects in lamin A/C maturation, organization and stability. We suggest that these lamina network alterations might be responsible for SREBP-1 nuclear mislocalization therefore resulting in altered adipocyte differentiation.

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