|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Improved survival among HIV-infected individuals after the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) had drawn attention on non-AIDS-defining cancers. We evaluated the incidence and risk trends of lung cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver and anal cancers, focusing on patients with CD4+ cell recovery and age at diagnosis, by comparison with the general population.Cohort study.Standardized incidence rates were calculated in the HIV-infected individuals followed in the FHDH and the general population in France in 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2009. We estimated standardized incidence ratios for each period and for patients with CD4+ cell count at least 500 cells/μl for at least 2 years on cART.Among the 84 504 HIV-infected individuals, the risk of lung and anal cancers fell during the cART era, whereas that of Hodgkin's lymphoma and liver cancer remained stable. In 2005–2009, the standardized incidence ratios for lung cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver and anal cancers were, respectively, 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5–3.1], 26.5 (95% CI 23.2–30.1), 10.9 (95% CI 9.6–12.3) and 79.3 (95% CI 69.5–90.1). Among patients with CD4+ cell recovery on cART, the risk was close to that of the general population for lung cancer, nine-fold higher for Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 2.4-fold higher for liver cancer. Age at diagnosis was significantly younger among HIV-infected individuals for lung cancer (−3.3 years), Hodgkin's lymphoma (−1 year) and liver cancer (−10.1 years).HIV-infected patients were at a higher risk for the four cancers over 1997–2009. CD4+ cell recovery appears to control the excess risk of lung cancer. For liver cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma, our results suggest that CD4+ should never drop below 500/μl 500 cells/μl to avoid the excess risk.