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To estimate the effects of infection by HIV on the type-specific cumulative detection of cervicovaginal infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).Retrospective assessment of prospectively collected data in a multicenter US cohort.HIV-seropositive and at-risk seronegative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study were followed semiannually for up to 11 years. HPV typing was determined from cervicovaginal lavage specimens by PCR; types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68 were considered carcinogenic.Among the 3438 women enrolled (2543 HIV-seropositive, 895 seronegative), the cumulative detection of any HPV infection rose among HIV-seropositive women from 53% at baseline to 92% at 8 years, and among seronegative women from 22 to 66% (P < 0.0001 for HIV-seropositive vs. seronegative women). The 8-year cumulative detection of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic HPV was 67 and 89% among HIV-seropositive, and 36 and 56% among seronegative women (P = 0.001 for both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic HPV). The 8-year cumulative detection of HPV16 and HPV18 was 15.2 and 15.0% in HIV-seropositive, and 6.7 and 6.1% in HIV-seronegative women (P < 0.0001 for both). In multivariable regression analyses, lower CD4+ cell count, age under 30 years, and smoking, but not number of lifetime sexual partners, were significant correlates of cumulative HPV detection.More than 90% of the HIV-seropositive women have HPV detected during a long follow-up. The rates are lower among at-risk HIV-seronegative women, though most also develop HPV infections.