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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that vibration treatment reduces delayed-onset muscle soreness and swelling and enhances recovery of muscle function after eccentric exercise.A randomized crossover design was used. Fifteen young men performed ten sets of six maximal eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with the right arm for one occasion and the left arm for the other occasion separated by 4 wks. One arm received a 30-min vibration treatment at 30 mins after and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after the exercise (treatment group), and the other arm did not receive any treatment (control group). The order of the treatment and control conditions and the use of the dominant and nondominant arms were counterbalanced among subjects. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were compared between arms by a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance.Compared with the control group, the treatment group showed significantly (P < 0.05) less development and faster reduction in delayed-onset muscle soreness at 2 to 5 days after exercise. The recovery of range of motion was significantly (P < 0.05) faster for the treatment than for the control group. However, no significant effects on the recovery of muscle strength and serum creatine kinase activity were evident. Immediately after the vibration treatment, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the magnitude of delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle strength and an increase in pressure pain threshold and range of motion were found.These results showed that the vibration treatment was effective for attenuation of delayed-onset muscle soreness and recovery of range of motion after strenuous eccentric exercise but did not affect swelling, recovery of muscle strength, and serum creatine kinase activity.