Application of Real-Time Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography Using a Matrix Array Probe for Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defect

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BackgroundThe aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of real-time three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) using a matrix array 3D transesophageal echocardiographic probe for morphologic evaluation and guidance of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs).MethodsForty-eight consecutive patients scheduled for the intervention were included. Two-dimensional (2D) transesophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE) and RT3D-TEE were performed before and during the procedures. Measurements of maximal ASD diameter and surrounding rims obtained on RT3D-TEE were compared with those obtained on 2D-TEE.ResultsIn 46 patients (96%), optimal 3D images for the morphologic evaluation of ASDs were obtained. RT3D-TEE facilitated the evaluation of ASD morphology and surrounding rims and was able to provide intraprocedural information clearly. A Bland-Altman plot showed a mean maximal diameter difference of −0.12 mm between the means (95% limits of agreement, −2.2 to 2.5 mm).ConclusionRT3D-TEE is a clinically useful, complementary option to 2D-TEE for evaluation of ASD morphology and for interventional guidance.

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