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To determine the complications associated with mitomycin C (MMC) in the treatment of ocular surface neoplasia.A retrospective and consecutive study of 100 eyes in 91 patients with ocular surface neoplasia treated with MMC in a single centre between November 1998 and January 2005. Outcome measures included complications of MMC and the treatment required for these complications.One to three 7 day cycles of topical MMC 0.04% four times a day were given to 59 eyes with localised corneal-conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 19 eyes with diffuse CIN, six eyes with recurrent CIN, one eye with ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma, three eyes with primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia, nine eyes with conjunctival malignant melanoma (MM), two eyes with sebaceous carcinoma with pagetoid spread, and one eye with recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma. Nine patients had bilateral CIN. 31 (34%) cases developed an allergic reaction to MMC and 14 (14%) eyes had epiphora secondary to punctal stenosis at a mean follow up period of 26.5 months.In the largest study looking at complications of topical MMC in the treatment of ocular surface neoplasia, allergic reaction and punctal stenosis are relatively common. Serious complications were not observed suggesting the safe use of MMC in mid-term follow up.