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STIs have taken on a more important role with the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and there is good evidence that their control can reduce HIV transmission. The challenge is not just to develop new interventions, but to identify barriers to the effective implementation of existing tools, and to devise ways to overcome these barriers. This 'scaling-up' of effective strategies will require an international and a multisectoral approach. It will require the formation of new partnerships between the private and public sectors and between governments and the communities they represent.