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DVT is common among critically ill patients. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for patient care. We assessed the accuracy and timeliness of intensivist-performed compression ultrasonography studies (IP-CUS) for proximal lower extremity DVT (PLEDVT) by comparing results with the formal vascular study (FVS) performed by ultrasonography technicians and interpreted by radiologists.We conducted a multicenter, retrospective review of IP-CUS examinations performed in an ICU by pulmonary and critical care fellows and attending physicians. Patients suspected of having DVT underwent IP-CUS, using a standard two-dimensional compression ultrasonography protocol for the diagnosis of PLEDVT. The IP-CUS data were collected prospectively as part of a quality-improvement initiative. The IP-CUS interpretation was recorded and timed at the end of the examination on a standardized report form. An FVS was then ordered, and the FVS result was used as the criterion standard for calculating sensitivity and specificity. Time delays between the IP-CUS and FVS were recorded.A total of 128 IP-CUS were compared with an FVS. Eighty-one percent of the IP-CUS were performed by fellows with < 2 years of clinical ultrasonography experience. Prevalence of DVT was 20%. IP-CUS studies yielded a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 96% with a diagnostic accuracy of 95%. Median time delay between the ordering of FVS and the FVS result was 13.8 h.Rapid and accurate diagnosis of proximal lower extremity DVT can be achieved by intensivists performing compression ultrasonography at the bedside.