Improving Active Compression-Decompression Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation With an Inspiratory Impedance Valve


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Abstract

Background Active compression-decompression (ACD) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has recently been demonstrated to provide significantly more blood flow to vital organs during cardiac arrest. To further enhance the effectiveness of this technique, we tested the hypothesis that intermittent impedance to inspiratory gas exchange during the decompression phase of ACD CPR enhances vital organ blood flow.Methods and Results ACD CPR was performed with a pneumatically driven automated compression-decompression device in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Nine pigs were randomized to receive ACD CPR alone, while 8 pigs received ACD CPR plus intermittent impedance to inspiratory gas exchange with a threshold valve set to 40 cm H2 O. Results comparing 2 minutes of ACD CPR alone versus ACD CPR with the inspiratory impedance threshold valve (ITV) revealed significantly higher mean (+-SEM) coronary perfusion pressures (diastolic aortic minus diastolic right atrial pressures) in the ITV (31.0+-2.3 mm Hg) group versus with ACD CPR alone (21+-3.6 mm Hg) (P<.05). Total left ventricular and cerebral blood flows, determined by radiolabeled microspheres, were 0.77+-0.095 and 0.47+-0.06 mL/min per gram, respectively, with ACD CPR plus the ITV versus 0.45+-0.1 and 0.32+-0.016 mL/min per gram, respectively, with ACD CPR alone (P<.05). Similar improvements in the ITV group were observed after 7 minutes of ACD CPR. After 16 minutes of VF and 13 minutes of ACD CPR, 6 of 8 pigs in the ITV group were successfully resuscitated with less than three successive 150-J shocks, whereas only 2 of 9 pigs with ACD CPR alone were resuscitated with equivalent energy levels (P<.02). With up to three additional and successive 200-J shocks, all pigs in the ITV group and 7 of 9 pigs with ACD CPR alone were resuscitated (P=.18).Conclusions Intermittent impedance to inspiratory flow of respiratory gases during ACD CPR significantly improves coronary perfusion pressures and vital organ blood flow and lowers defibrillation energy requirements in a porcine model of VF. (Circulation. 1995;91:1629-1632.)

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