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The objective of this study was to estimate kidney length and function in patients with unilateral duplex kidney.Thirteen patients with a unilateral duplicated system were reviewed retrospectively. The length of the kidneys was measured by ultrasound, and the relative function of the kidneys was estimated by renal scan.In all patients, the duplex kidney was the left one. The length of the right kidney on the renal ultrasound growth chart was from –1.5 to +0.4 standard deviations from the mean for age, and the left kidney length was from –0.5 to +4.3 standard deviations from the mean. On renal scans the kidneys with a duplicated system contributed 51 to 67% to total renal function; the contralateral ones, 33 to 49%.Kidneys with a duplicated system may be larger than their counterparts and they may contribute more to total renal function. When a disparity in length between the 2 kidneys is encountered, 1 of the possibilities that should be taken into account is a unilateral duplicated system.