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This paper reviews the techniques and materials (bone graft and bone graft substitutes) that currently are used to treat nonunions and bone defects. The techniques reviewed are intramedullary nailing, plating, distraction osteogenesis, and electric stimulation. Bone graft and bone graft substitutes reviewed are as follows: vascularized bone transfers; autogenous bone graft; autogenous bone marrow; demineralized bone matrix; growth factors; calcium sulphate; calcium phosphates; and allograft. The goal of management of fractures, nonunions, and segmental bony defects, is the return of function as quickly and completely as possible. Techniques and management strategies constantly are evolving to accomplish this goal. This paper reviews the history, indications, and limitations of bone repair techniques, methods of bone grafting, and materials available as bone graft substitutes.