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In a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study, 109 patients with bone defects were treated with a surgical grade calcium sulfate preparation as a bone graft substitute. The calcium sulfate pellets were used in place of morselized cancellous bone graft for the treatment of patients with bone defects who usually would require grafting secondary to trauma, periprosthetic bone loss, tumor, or fusion. The calcium sulfate was used alone or mixed with other materials such as bone marrow aspirate, demineralized bone matrix, or autograft. The defects that were treated were contained and were not necessary for the stability of the bony structure. Radiographic and clinical data were collected at predetermined intervals for 12 months. At 6 months postoperatively, radiographic results for all patients showed that 99% of the calcium sulfate had been resorbed and 88% of the defect was filled with trabeculated bone. There were 13 complications; however, only four (3.6%) were attributable to the product. The results of a subgroup of 46 patients with benign bone lesions treated in the same manner are identical to the results of the overall study population. Surgical grade calcium sulfate pellets are considered a convenient, safe, and readily available bone graft substitute that yield consistent successful results.