The effect of omeprazole pretreatment on acetaminophen metabolism in rapid and slow metabolizers of S-mephenytoin


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Abstract

Omeprazole, a widely used and potent gastric proton pump inhibitor, induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 in humans. Induction is most pronounced in slow metabolizers of S-mephenytoin because CYP2C19(S-mephenytoin hydroxylase) is responsible for the elimination of omeprazole. Acetaminophen (INN, paracetamol), a widely used and effective analgesic and antipyretic agent, causes serious hepatic and renal toxicity at high doses by conversion of acetaminophen to the toxic intermediateN-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) through CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. This study evaluated whether omeprazole pretreatment in five rapid and five slow metabolizers of S-mephenytoin could increase thioether (an estimate of NAPQI production) metabolite formation from acetaminophen. The results of this study show that, despite induction of CYP1A2 activity in slow metabolizers (a 75% increase in plasma clearance of caffeine), the formation of NAPQI from acetaminophen was not increased after 7 days of omeprazole administration (40 mg/day). This suggests that induction of CYP1A2 activity by omeprazole is unlikely to increase the risk of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. (Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997;62:21-8.)

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