Effect of hypoalbuminemia and parenteral nutrition on free water excretion and electrolyte-free water resorption


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Abstract

ObjectiveTo measure the effect of human albumin supplementation during parenteral nutrition on serum albumin concentrations, colloid oncotic pressure, free water clearance, electrolyte-free water resorption, and sodium excretion.DesignProspective, randomized, controlled trial.SettingTertiary care center.PatientsThirty adult, hypoalbuminemic patients who required parenteral nutrition.InterventionsParenteral nutrition (control) or parenteral nutrition plus human albumin 25 g/L as a continuous infusion (treatment) for a 5-day study period.MeasurementsOn days 1 and 5, serum albumin concentration, colloid oncotic pressure, free water clearance, electrolyte-free water resorption, and sodium excretion were measured.ResultsSerum albumin concentrations increased significantly from day 1 to day 5 in both groups (control: 2.0 ± 0.1 [mean ±SEM] vs. 2.3 ± 0.1 g/dL [20 ± 1 vs. 23 ± 1 g/L], p = .02; treatment: 2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 3.5 ± 0.2 g/dL [22 ± 1 vs. 35 ± 2 g/L], p = .0001). Day 5 serum albumin concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group compared with control (p = .0001). Colloid oncotic pressure increased significantly from day 1 to day 5 in the treatment group (17.8 ± 0.8 vs. 25.1 ± 1.0 mm Hg, p = .0001), and was significantly higher than control at day 5 (p = .0001). No significant differences were found for free water clearance, electrolyte-free water resorption, or sodium excretion within or between groups.ConclusionsIn hypoalbuminemic patients, human albumin supplementation during parenteral nutrition results in significant increases in serum albumin concentrations and colloid oncotic pressure, but has no apparent effect on free water clearance, electrolyte-free water resorption, or sodium excretion.

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