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In 1994, a register for cerebral palsy and a health-care programme were started in southern Sweden with the aim of preventing dislocation of the hip in children with cerebral palsy. It involved all children with cerebral palsy born in 1992 or later.None of the 206 affected children born between 1992 and 1997 has developed a dislocation following the introduction of the prevention programme. Another 48 children moved into the area and none developed any further dislocation. Of the 251 children with cerebral palsy, aged between five and 11 years, living in the area on January 1, 2003, only two had a dislocated hip. One boy had moved into the area at age of nine with a dislocation and a girl whose parents chose not to participate in the programme developed bilateral dislocation. One boy, whose condition was considered to be too poor for preventative surgery, developed a painful dislocation of the hip at the age of five years and died three years later.Eight of 103 children in a control group, consisting of all children with cerebral palsy living in the area between 1994 and 2002, and born between 1990 and 1991, developed a dislocation of the hip before the age of six years.The decreased incidence of dislocation after the introduction of the prevention programme was significant (p < 0.001). Dislocation of the hip in cerebral palsy remains a serious problem, and prevention is important. Our screening programme and early intervention when lateral displacement of the femoral head was detected appear to be successful.