The Effect of Intragastric Balloon on Plasma Ghrelin, Leptin, and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Morbid Obesity

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Context:Ghrelin and leptin are hormones regulating appetite and metabolic processes. Adiponectin plays an important role in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.Objective:The objective of the study was to evaluate the levels of plasma ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin in obese subjects treated with bioenterics intragastric balloon (BIB), low-calorie diet (1500 kcal), and physical exercise.Design:BIB was placed for 6 months in 21 subjects with body mass index 47.3 ± 5.7. The control group consisted of 15 morbidly obese subjects treated with a low-calorie diet and physical effort. Plasma hormone levels were determined by RIA.Results:In the BIB group, the insertion of the balloon caused a considerable reduction in body mass over a 6-month period (17.1 ± 8.0 kg) as compared with the control group (3.2 ± 6.4 kg). After 1 month, the levels of ghrelin increased from 621.9 ± 182.4 to 903.9 ± 237 pg/ml and thereafter gradually decreased, reaching the starting level 3 months after the removal of the balloon. In the same group, the levels of leptin decreased from 61.3 ± 36.7 to 39.9 ± 17.5 ng/ml. In the control group, the corresponding levels of ghrelin and leptin remained relatively stable. During the observation period, in the BIB group, the levels of adiponectin remained unchanged as opposed to a transient increase noted in the control group.Conclusions:In patients with morbid obesity, weight loss induced by BIB is associated with a decrease in plasma leptin and a transient elevation of plasma ghrelin. It is likely that the changes in hormones regulating the energy balance caused by BIB can prevent an increase in adiponectin level.

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