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Ghrelin and leptin are hormones regulating appetite and metabolic processes. Adiponectin plays an important role in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.The objective of the study was to evaluate the levels of plasma ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin in obese subjects treated with bioenterics intragastric balloon (BIB), low-calorie diet (1500 kcal), and physical exercise.BIB was placed for 6 months in 21 subjects with body mass index 47.3 ± 5.7. The control group consisted of 15 morbidly obese subjects treated with a low-calorie diet and physical effort. Plasma hormone levels were determined by RIA.In the BIB group, the insertion of the balloon caused a considerable reduction in body mass over a 6-month period (17.1 ± 8.0 kg) as compared with the control group (3.2 ± 6.4 kg). After 1 month, the levels of ghrelin increased from 621.9 ± 182.4 to 903.9 ± 237 pg/ml and thereafter gradually decreased, reaching the starting level 3 months after the removal of the balloon. In the same group, the levels of leptin decreased from 61.3 ± 36.7 to 39.9 ± 17.5 ng/ml. In the control group, the corresponding levels of ghrelin and leptin remained relatively stable. During the observation period, in the BIB group, the levels of adiponectin remained unchanged as opposed to a transient increase noted in the control group.In patients with morbid obesity, weight loss induced by BIB is associated with a decrease in plasma leptin and a transient elevation of plasma ghrelin. It is likely that the changes in hormones regulating the energy balance caused by BIB can prevent an increase in adiponectin level.