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Studies have suggested that colonic diverticulosis might increase the likelihood of repeat Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Our study was designed to compare rates of repeat infection in patients with and without colon diverticula.Patients who had a positive C. difficile toxin assay and colonoscopic evidence of diverticulosis were classified as CDI and diverticulosis (CDI-D), whereas those with a positive toxin assay but no such colonoscopic evidence were classified as CDI and no diverticulosis (CDI-ND). Various clinical and epidemiologic factors were recorded for each patient. Primary outcomes were “relapse” (repeat CDI within 3 mo of initial infection) and “recurrent” infection (repeat CDI≥3 mo after initial infection). Secondary outcomes 30 days after diagnosis were mortality, intensive care unit transfer, and continuous hospitalization.A total of 128 patients were classified as CDI-D, whereas 137 had CDI-ND. There were no significant differences between CDI-D and CDI-ND when comparing frequencies of repeat infection and its subclassifications, relapse or recurrence. There were, however, statistical associations seen between diverticulosis of the ascending colon and increased recurrence rates [hazard ratio (HR): 1.4±0.38, P<0.05] and decreased rates of relapse in diverticular disease of the descending (HR: 0.40±0.46, P<0.05), and sigmoid colon (HR: 0.39±0.49, P<0.05). The ascending colon association is limited by a small patient population. There were no significant differences in any of the 30-day outcomes including intensive care unit requirement, hospitalization stay, or mortality.Patients with diverticular disease of the colon are not at increased risk of repeat CDI.