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The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an intake of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 (DSM 22775) for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children.AD is an inflammatory and pruritic chronic relapsing skin disorder with multifactorial etiopathology. Some evidence suggests that probiotics may improve AD by modulating the immune system and the composition of intestinal microbiota.A total of 43 patients aged from 0 to 11 years were enrolled in the study (M/F ratio=1:1) and treated with the probiotic strain L. salivarius LS01. Clinical efficacy of probiotic treatment was assessed from baseline by changes in itch index and in the objective SCORAD/SCORAD index.Patients being given probiotic treatment showed a significant improvement in clinical parameters (SCORAD and itch values) from baseline. The reduction in SCORAD and itch index observed after 4 weeks of treatment also persisted after the cessation of probiotic supplementation.L. salivarius LS01 seems to be able to improve the quality of life of children affected by AD and, as a consequence, it may have promising clinical and research implications.