Intrahepatic bile duct injury and nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa

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Although involvement of the hepatic vasculature in patients with polyarteritis nodosa is not unusual, biliary manifestations are very rare. We describe a patient with polyarteritis nodosa presenting with a febrile cholestatic anicteric syndrome. Histological examination of the liver revealed necrotizing arteritis of small hepatic arteries associated with significant lesions of intrahepatic bile ducts of the sclerosing cholangitis type, i.e. fibrous collar around the ducts, periductal inflammation and ductal proliferation. Concomitant nodular regenerative hyperplasia was found, a condition which has rarely been described in association with polyarteritis nodosa. We think that hepatic arteritis compromising arterial blood flow to the liver was responsible for the most likely ischemic nature of the bile duct injury and the nodular regenerative hyperplasia seen in our patient.

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