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Effective self-care is regarded as essential to the management of heart failure (HF). The influence of self-care on HF decompensation, however, is not well understood. Accordingly, we examined the relationship between self-care and fluid accumulation accompanying worsening HF as indexed by decreasing intrathoracic impedance (Z).Z data were collected from 58 HF patients with OptiVol enabled devices (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minnesota). Heart failure self-care was measured with the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale. Regression modeling was used to describe the influence of HF self-care on the likelihood of a fluid index (FI) threshold crossing, the number of threshold crossings, and number of days spent above threshold.Patients were elderly (74.98 [SD, 8.12] years), with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 26.21% (SD, 9.77%), and 63.7% had class New York Heart Association III HF. Patients were followed up for 317 (SD, 96) days; 65.5% had FI threshold crossings (mean 1.45 [SD, 1.56] crossings), spending an average of 33.8 (SD, 42.4) days above FI threshold. Controlling for age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, functional class, and duration of follow-up, each additional point on the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale was associated with an increase in the odds of having had an FI threshold crossing (adjusted odds ratio, 1.201; 95% confidence interval, 1.013-1.424; P < .05) and more days spent above FI threshold (incidence rate ratio, 1.051; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.102; P < .05).Intrathoracic impedance measurements obtained from implantable devices provide important information regarding the influence of self-care on fluid accumulation in patients with HF.