Development and Validation of the Hypertension Self-care Profile: A Practical Tool to Measure Hypertension Self-care


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Abstract

Background:Adequate self-care is crucial for blood pressure control. A number of hypertension (HBP) self-care instruments are available, but existing tools do not capture all the critical domains of HBP self-care and have limited evidence of reliability and validity.Objective:The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new tool—the HBP Self-Care Profile (HBP SCP)—in a sample of inner-city residents.Methods:The HBP SCP encompasses comprehensive domains of HBP self-care behaviors. Guided by 2 validated theoretical approaches—Orem’s self-care model and Motivational Interviewing—the HBP SCP includes 3 scales that can be used together or independently: Behavior, Motivation, and Self-efficacy. The sample included 213 English-speaking inner-city residents with HBP (mean age, 68.6 years; 76.1% women; 81.7% African American).Results:Item-total correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 for Behavior, 0.46 to 0.70 for Motivation, and 0.40 to 0.74 for Self-efficacy, meeting the cutoff set a priori at 0.15. Internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 0.93. Concurrent and construct validities of the HBP SCP were achieved by significant correlations between HBP SCP scales and theoretically selected instruments (P < .05 for all correlation coefficients). The HBP SCP–Behavior scale also successfully discriminated between those with or without blood pressure control (P < .05).Conclusions:The reliability and validity of the HBP SCP were supported in this sample of inner-city residents with HBP. The high reliability estimates and strong evidence of validity should allow researchers to use the HBP SCP to assess and identify gaps in HBP self-care behavior, motivation, and self-efficacy. Future research is warranted to evaluate the HBP SCP in diverse ethnic and age samples of hypertensive patient populations.

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