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The Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) is an empirically tested instrument for measuring the self-care of patients with heart failure.The aim of this study was to develop a simplified Chinese version of the SCHFI and provide evidence for its construct validity.A total of 182 Chinese with heart failure were surveyed. A 2-step structural equation modeling procedure was applied to test construct validity.Factor analysis showed 3 factors explaining 43% of the variance. Structural equation model confirmed that self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence are indeed indicators of self-care, and self-care confidence was a positive and equally strong predictor of self-care maintenance and self-care management. Moreover, self-care scores were correlated with the Partners in Health Scale, indicating satisfactory concurrent validity.The Chinese version of the SCHFI is a theory-based instrument for assessing self-care of Chinese patients with heart failure.