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Chronic heart failure (CHF) is an increasing and costly health problem worldwide. Effective self-care behaviors reduce the cost and improve CHF outcomes. Interventions targeting improvement of self-care need to identify the baseline status of patients and factors associated with self-care to tailor the programs to patients’ needs.The aim of this study was to describe self-care and its predictors in patients with CHF in western Iran.In a cross-sectional study, 255 patients with CHF in Kermanshah were recruited and 231 (mean [SD] age, 66  years; 51.5% women) completed the interviews. Self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence were evaluated using a Persian heart failure self-care index. Each of these 3 measures had a total possible score of 100, with 22 indicators.The mean (SD) self-care scores were low: maintenance, 33.8 (10.7); management, 32.2 (12.0); and confidence, 43.6 (15.6). Self-care maintenance was significantly and positively associated with education, disease duration, and living conditions. Self-care management was significantly and positively associated with education and number of hospital admissions. However, the parameter estimates in all those relationships were small.Self-care in patients with CHF in Iran needs major improvement, and many determinants of self-care identified by other studies were not consistently associated with poor self-care scores in Iran. Further research considering a wide range of factors associated with self-care (eg, socioeconomic and health system–related factors) and application of culturally relevant interventional strategies is recommended.