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Substrate mobilization and utilization are important factors in exercise physiology. Until recently few methods were available for detailed studies of muscle metabolism. The introduction of isotopes for tracing reactions and the use of needles for tissue sampling have resulted in considerable progress in understanding metabolic events.In this paper some of the more recent observations will be presented. More specifically muscle cell adaptation to physical training and its significance for the metabolic response during work will be discussed. Moreover, comments will be made on fuel lack and the accumulation of degradation products as limiting factors in exercise.