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MORROW, J. R., Jr., A. S. JACKSON, P. W. BRADLEY, and G. H. HARTUNG. Accuracy of measured and predicted residual lung volume on body density measurement. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 647–652, 1986. The effects of measured and predicted residual lung volume on the accuracy of body density and percent fat (%Fat) were investigated. Adult fitness subjects (N = 46) had residual lung volume measured with the oxygen dilution method while those from an athlete sample (N = 134) utilized the nitrogen washout technique. Residual lung volume was also predicted with gender-specific regression equations using height and age and from 24% of vital capacity (%FVC). Residual lung volume alpha reliability for the average of four residual lung volume trials exceeded 0.90 (SEM < = 161 ml) for the oxygen dilution method and 0.99 (SEM = 30 ml) for the average of two nitrogen washout measures. The standard errors for predicted residual lung volume were 579 and 355 ml, respectively, for the men and women in the adult sample and 288 ml for the trained athlete sample. Estimating residual lung volume from %FVC yielded a SEE of 318 ml for the trained athlete sample. Measured residual lung volume errors resulted in errors of 1.04%Fat, 0.87%Fat, and 0.21 %Fat for the men, women, and trained athlete samples, respectively. In contrast, predicted residual lung volume measurement errors resulted in errors of 3.70%Fat, 2.85%Fat, and 1.98%Fat for the respective samples and 2.l8%Fat when using %FVC with the trained athletes. Measured residual lung volume introduces little %Fat error while predicted residual lung volume introduces a substantial source of measurement error.