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The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 6, 2001, pp. 855–867. The aim of this paper is to describe the first human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness traits based on the papers published until the end of 2000. Studies of candidate genes using case-control and other designs are reviewed. Quantitative trait loci from the limited evidence reported to date in genomic scans are also incorporated. Performance and fitness phenotypes in the sedentary state as well as their changes during exercise, if applicable, or in response to exercise training are considered. Physical performance traits include cardiorespiratory endurance indicators and muscular strength or muscular performance variables. Health-related fitness phenotypes are grouped under the following categories: hemodynamic traits; anthropometry and body composition; insulin and glucose metabolism; and lipids, lipoproteins, and hemostatic factors. A yearly update of this human gene map will be published.