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Patients with intestinal failure often have diarrhea for a variety of reasons. Treatment of diarrhea has centered on the use of antidiarrheal medications and antibiotic therapy. Recently, there has been interest in the oral administration of probiotics for these patients with small bowel bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory bowel disease, and radiation enteritis. This paper reviews the studies that have used probiotics to treat patients with short bowel syndrome and gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, some of the specific issues regarding probiotics are addressed.