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Ocular fundi of 410 newborns were examined for retinal hemorrhages within 24 hours after delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the course of pregnancy and management of delivery influence the incidence of neonatal retinal hemorrhage (RH) and whether this incidence could be reduced by electronic monitoring of delivery. To assess the prognostic value of neonatal RH for future development of the child, the physical, motor, and psychologic states of 252 infants were examined 6 to 18 months following delivery. The incidence of RH was 37.3% and was not influenced by maternal age, parity, gestational age, course of pregnancy, birth weight, or electronic monitoring of delivery. The mode of delivery did influence the incidence of RH. Gesell developmental schedule showed no correlation between ocular findings and later development of the child.