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The antinociceptive effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, and the influence of caffeine, were examined in a paw pressure test in rats. Carbamazepine (10–40 mg/kg; intraperitoneal, i.p.) and oxcarbazepine (40–160 mg/kg; i.p.) caused a significant dose-dependent reduction of the paw inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by concanavalin A (Con A), intraplantarly (i.p1.). A comparable pattern of antinociceptive effect of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine was observed; the only difference is their potency, in that carbamazepine was about three times more potent than oxcarbazepine. Caffeine (5–20 mg/kg; i.p.), a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, significantly depressed the antinociceptive effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Also, a significant depression of the antinociceptive effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine was observed by pretreatment with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxantine (DPCPX, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg; i.p.), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These findings indicate that, in a paw inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats, the antinociceptive effects of both drugs are, at least partially, mediated by adenosine A1 receptors. In conclusion, the present study suggests the potential clinical importance of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in the treatment of inflammatory pain. In addition, caffeine consumption could possibly depress the analgesic effects of both anticonvulsive drugs.