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The aim of this study was to perform exploratory analyses of the efficacy and safety of pancrelipase delayed-release capsules (Creon) in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) with (n = 36) and without (n = 18) concurrent diabetes mellitus (DM).This was a retrospective, post hoc, subgroup (±DM) analysis of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of pancrelipase in patients with EPI due to chronic pancreatitis or pancreatectomy (total or partial). After a 5-day placebo run-in period (baseline), patients were randomized to pancrelipase (72,000 lipase units/meal, 36,000/snack) or placebo for 7 days. Outcomes included changes in coefficients of fat absorption (CFA) and nitrogen absorption (CNA) from baseline to the end of the double-blind period.Mean changes in nutrient absorption were greater with pancrelipase versus placebo in patients with DM (CFA, 36.0% vs 7.5%, P < 0.0001; CNA, 33.4% vs 3.7%, P = 0.0002) and without DM (CFA, 25.2% vs 12.3%, P = 0.0326; CNA, 39.1% vs 17.6%, P = 0.1187). Diabetes mellitus was not significantly associated with outcomes for CFA (P = 0.0802) and CNA (P = 0.2934). Incidences of adverse events, including hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, were similar in the pancrelipase and placebo arms.Pancrelipase improved fat and protein absorption in patients with EPI due to chronic pancreatitis or pancreatectomy, with or without DM, and matched the safety profile previously reported.