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Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV8) infections are sexually transmitted and respectively associated with the development of oropharyngeal carcinoma and Kaposi sarcoma. The aim of the study was to evaluate HPV prevalence and its possible correlation with HHV8 oral shedding, in relation to sex, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) behavioral risk factor, and immune function.The study population comprised 100 HIV-infected individuals divided into 3 groups: (1) 38 men who have sex with men (MSM), (2) 24 heterosexual men, and (3) 38 women. DNA was obtained from cells of unstimulated whole saliva. Human papillomavirus sequences were searched for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with MY09/MY11 primers or by nested PCR with GP5+/GP6+ primers as the second step. Typing was accomplished by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or by direct sequencing or by reverse line blot. Human herpesvirus-8 sequences were detected and quantified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively.Oral HPV infection was present in 37 (prevalence, 37%) of 100 (13 with high-risk and 24 with low-risk types) patients; the most frequent types were HPV16, HPV6, HPV10, HPV61, HPV66, and HPV83. Human herpesvirus-8 DNA was detected in 46 (46%) of 100 subjects. Both infections had the highest prevalence among MSM and the lowest among women; women had a lower prevalence of high-risk HPV types than did both male groups (P = 0.05). An inverse correlation was observed with concomitant oral HHV8 infection (P = 0.007).High prevalence of oral HPV and HHV8 infections was observed; MSM had the highest figures, despite better control of HIV infection.