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Evidence suggests that CD8plus T lymphocytes are involved in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vivo, either by cytolytic mechanisms or by the release of HIV-suppressive factors (HIV-SF). The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta were identified as the major HIV-SF produced by CD8plus T cells. Two active proteins purified from the culture supernatant of an immortalized CD8plus T cell clone revealed sequence identity with human RANTES and MIP-1 alpha. RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta were released by both immortalized and primary CD8plus T cells. HIV-SF activity produced by these cells was completely blocked by a combination of neutralizing antibodies against RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta. Recombinant human RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta induced a dose-dependent inhibition of different strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). These data may have relevance for the prevention and therapy of AIDS.