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We investigated the risk factors for gallstone disease in Taiwan.We retrospectively analyzed medical records of patients receiving periodic health examination at China Medical College Hospital from January to December 2000. A detailed history, physical examination, biochemical measurements, and abdominal ultrasonography were done.The 602 men (58.6%) and 426 women (41.4%) had a mean age of 49.2 ± 12.8 years (range, 18 to 87). The prevalence of gallstone disease was 7.8% in women and 6.5% in men. After controlling for other covariates, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that with a reference group aged less than 40 years as a comparison, both men and women aged 65 or older were more likely to have gallstone disease.Age in both sexes and hepatitis C virus infection in women were found to be risk factors for gallstone disease in our study population.